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The central processing unit (CPU - Eng. Central processing unit) - performer machine instructions, part of computer hardware or programmable logic controller, responsible for performing arithmetic operations defined by the operating system programs, and coordinating the work of all of the computer's.

Clock frequency - the frequency of clock synchronous circuitry, that is, the number of clock cycles coming from the outside to the input of a second. Generally, the term is used with respect to components of computer systems. In the first approximation, the clock speed characterizes the performance of subsystems (CPU, memory, etc.), that is, the number of operations performed per second. However, a system with the same clock frequency may have different performance, as to perform a different operation systems may require a different number of cycles (usually from fractions to tens of clock cycles), and in addition, a system using parallel processing and pipelining, may at the same strokes to perform multiple operations.

The term "microprocessor core" (born processor core) is not well defined, and depending on the context of use can mean: microprocessor portion containing basic functional blocks.
a set of parameters characterizing the microprocessor.
chip microprocessor (CPU or GPU), most often open.

Microprocessor core has its own code word (eg, K7) or name (for example, Deschutes).

characteristics of the kernel:

Typical properties of the core are, for example:
command system;
number of functional units (ALU, FPU, conveyors, etc.);
the amount of on-chip cache;
interface (logical and physical);
supply voltage;
maximum and typical heat;
production technology;
chip area.